History Of Vietnam

The history of Vietnam, according to legends, dates back more than 4,000 years. The only reliable sources, however, indicate that Vietnamese history roughly dates to 2,700 years ago. For most of the period from 111 BC to the early 10th century, it was under the direct rule of successive dynasties from China. Vietnam regained autonomy in early 10th century and complete independence in 938 AD. While for much of its history, Vietnam remained a tributary state to its larger neighbor China, it repelled repeated attempts by China to make it once again part of the territory under direct imperial rule. Moreover, it managed to repel the three invasions by the Mongols during the Yuan Dynasty, when China was under Mongolian rule. But the king at that time, Trần Nhân Tông, would eventually diplomatically submit as a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflicts. The independent period temporarily ended in the middle to late 19th century, when the country was colonized by France. During World War II, Imperial Japan expelled the French to occupy Vietnam, though they retained French administrators during their occupation. After the war, France attempted to re-establish its colonial rule but ultimately failed. The Geneva Accords partitioned the country in two with a promise of democratic election to reunite the country.

However, rather than peaceful reunification, partition led to the Vietnam War - which, depending on one's perspective, was either a civil war or another battlefield of the then-ongoing global ideological conflict, the Cold War. During this time, the North was supported by the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union, while the South was supported by the United States. After millions of Vietnamese deaths and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the fall of Saigon to the North in April 1975. In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam changed its economic policy and began reforms of the private sector similar to those in China. Since the mid-1980s, Vietnam has enjoyed substantial economic growth.

 


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